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Now incorporating site formerly known as "Engineering-Industrial.com". This was yet another of our sister sites (2005-2016) created simultaneously with industrial-electronics.com. It has moved in!
Instrumentation reference guide (includes: Physical instruments; Engineering instruments): Field Controllers, Hardware and Software
Do-it-Yourself Low-Cost Signal Generator--Includes theory, schematics, parts lists, and mini-projects
Health concerns and electromagnetic fields (EMF) ... and related topics...
Practical Electronics for Inventors: DC Motors, RC Servos, and Stepper Motors
Electric Motors -- Fundamentals and Control -- Achieve maximum energy efficiency in electric motors!
Electric Motor Drives and Machines: Dynamics and Control
Fundamentals of Electric Motors and Electric Drives
above: Example of typical AC 3-phase induction motor (Courtesy Baldor Electric).
Industrial Electricians Standard Guide of Electricity
Basics of Industrial Electronics Troubleshooting
above: Various motors by Baldor Electric Corp.
One of the keys to maximizing life in electric motors is to learn from one's premature failures. Use the Internet to research issues. Ask questions on topical forums. Partner with a service shop and learn from the types of failures they see and document. Then, take actions to prevent these failures from happening to your other motors in similar applications. This might involve changing your maintenance procedures. Perhaps you need to grease more or less, or use a more compatible grease. Perhaps you need to identify voltage supply problems (for instance, if you have bearing fluting from an adjustable speed drive). 2nd, check to see if contamination and water are getting into the motors. If either one of these is an issue, do you have the right enclosure? Does the enclosure need a higher level of environmental protection? If so, look into severe duty, IEEE 841 or washdown motors. Finally, if you want to maximize service life, empower the plant maintenance and purchasing folks to buy better motors that will last longer and reduce energy consumption for years. Buying the lowest-cost item doesn’t always equate to the lowest life cost. Studies show that a motor purchase price is only 2 percent of its total life-cycle cost.
Basics of Variable-Speed Drives (VSD) and Power Electronics
above: AC motor inverter, VSD. (Courtesy Baldor.)
above: Reliance Electric's GV3000 Drives -- avail. in two styles to suit various apps.
Electric Machinery, Motor Drives and Electricity Power Systems
above: AC motor inverter, VSD. (Made by Hitachi)
above: Dayton Adjustable Frequency AC Drive - 1KBT7.
above: "Vector" series drives by Lenze. The modular range of 8200 vector frequency inverters in the power range from 0.25 to 90 kW provides a complete and consistent solution with everything you may need to facilitate operation, handling, diagnostics and communication. Pluggable function modules can be used to integrate the 8200 vector into the control and automation world of your machine or plant. The compact dimensions save you space in the control cabinet.
Electronics students ... we have just set up this ...
Guide to Electric Machines and Transformers
above: Cutaway model motor from Emerson Corp. They advise: To maximize motor life, focus on proper lubrication and temperature. In regard to proper lubrication, bearings must receive not only a good, quality lubricant but the correct quantity at the proper intervals in order to obtain optimum life and reliability. Under- or over-greasing can be detrimental to reliability. Under-greasing does not provide the lubricant at the time it is needed, resulting in bearing wear or heat damage. Over-greasing can damage shields or significantly increase operating temperatures due to fluid shear friction. This reduces the grease’s lubricating capability. Oil-lubricated bearings must have the correct type and viscosity of oil for the same reasons stated previously. Closely follow manufacturer’s recommendations for lubrication types, amounts and schedules. In regard to temperature, this is the nemesis of electric motors. Overload, under-voltage, over-voltage, unbalanced voltage and improper ventilation can all work to increase the motor’s operating temperature. The overused rule of thumb is that motor life is cut in half for every increase of 10 degrees Celsius. Although the rule’s accuracy may be in question, it illustrates the point well. Any care given to mitigate the operating temperature will be rewarded with increased life and reliability. And, don’t make the mistake of increasing the rated capacity of a motor applied in a high ambient temperature environment to accommodate the winding temperature increase. Particularly on enclosed machines, this could result in unacceptable bearing operating temperatures, leading to early demise.
above: Question: What are these devices? Answer: Electric motor electromagnetic brakes (made by Germany's INTORQ)
above: ...and these are electromagnetic clutches--also by INTORQ.
above: Clutch-brake combinations. By INTORQ.
Laboratory Manual for Electronics:
Switching Power Supply Guide:
Guide to Motors and Generators:
... and ...
Student's and Professional's Guide to Power Generation and Delivery:
What it is...
Our new guide introduces the concepts of power generation and distribution. The material is broken down into short segments which concentrate on specific concepts or applications of particular types of equipment. The detailed explanations are written in easy-to-understand language and concisely presents the needed knowledge. There are many illustrations and photographs which help to provide technical understanding and provide real-world reference. This type of explanation and application better prepares the learner to perform effectively on the job in installation, troubleshooting, repair, and service of electrical power generation and delivery.
The knowledge obtained in this guide permits the learner to progress further in the study of electrical systems. It should be understood that the study of electricity and the application of electrical products are continually changing. The electrical industry constantly introduces new and improved devices and material which in turn lead to changes in installation and operation of equipment. Electrical codes also change to reflect the industry needs. It is it essential that the learner continues to learn and update their knowledge of the current procedures and practices.
The text is easy to read and the units have been grouped by general subject. There are summaries of each unit which provide an opportunity to restate the most important topics of the unit. There are summaries of the units provided to summarize topic groups.
Each unit begins with the learning objectives. An Achievement-Review Quiz at the end of each unit provides an opportunity for the learner to check their understanding of the material in small increments before proceeding. Some of problems presented in the guide require the use of simple algebra and the learner should be familiar with the math before trying to solve the equations . It is also essential that the reader have a basic understanding of the fundamentals of electrical circuits and basic electrical concepts.
It is recommended that the most recent edition of the National Electrical Code (published by the National Fire Protection Association) be available for reference and use as the learner uses this guide. Application state and local codes and regulations should also be consulted when making the actual installations.
Student's and Professional's Guide to AC/DC Motors, Controls, and Maintenance:
Student's and Professional's Guide to Industrial Electrical Devices, Circuits and Materials:
1.-10. (coming soon!)
14. (coming soon!)
15. (coming soon!)
Coming soon: Achieve maximum energy efficiency in electric motors! We delve in to technical, meaty topics in order to help you obtain (and, henceforth, expect) maximum efficiency from your AC drive, DC drive, stepper motor, generator, alternator ... and even motors suitable for electric and hybrid cars.
AC Drives and High-power Converters: Intro, Requirements, Motor-Side Challenges, Switching Device Constraints, Converter Configurations, MV Industrial Drives
Industrial Motors + Generators -- best price
Do You Know Your Motor Drive?
above: ABB Industrial Drive -- ACS800. They are complete AC variable speed drives, which can be installed without any additional cabinet or enclosure and used in process industries such as pulp and paper, metals, mining, cement, power, chemical, and oil and gas. [ABB ACS800 industrial AC inverter drives with direct torque control (DTC) as standard are available both as complete AC drives and as modules to meet the requirements of the users, OEMs and system integrators. The ACS800 range of ac inverters are highly flexible and can be configured to meet the precise needs of industrial applications, and hence order-based configuration is an integral part of the offering.]
above: Motor Soft Starters by ABB. A less-cost alternative to VSDs.
above: Reliance Electric MD60 AC motor drive.
above: An extremely simple AC drive: DC2 Drive by Reliance Electric. Depending on your app. or budget, this may be all you need.
above: Reliance Electric's SP600 NEMA 4X/12. Washdown and Dust-Tight. Prices depend on HP, starting around $1500.00 for 0.5HP, up to $4800.00 for 20HP. [Key Attributes: Sensorless Vector Control (SVC); Operator Interface; Multi-line Graphic LCD Display; Icon Menu; Scalable Monitor Display; Control Modes; V/Hz. Sensorless Vector; Fan/Pump V/Hz.; Internal PI regulator; Flow control; Pressure control; Position control; Auto Tuning.]
Know a starter from a relay from a contactor from a contactor? With so many choices these days, and with technologies merging, the differences seem confusing. Try to guess what each of these may be. For the answer, cursor over each of these images...
Electromechanic Motor Starter; Electronic Motor Starters with Integrated Soft Starter Function
Motor Starter: This Siemens isolator module with its switch disconnector function serves to safely isolate the 400 V operating voltage when repair work is being carried out in the plant. It features an integrated group-fusing function, i.e. additional group short-circuit protection for all series-connected motor starters. Depending on their power distribution concept, all stations can be optionally fitted with an isolator module.
Siemens SIRIUS Relays--functional block diagram
Timing Relays--Electronic timing relays are employed for all time-delayed switching processes in control, starting, protection and regulation circuits.
Gearbox Repair Services
Essential Books for Industrial Electronics — Topics include AC/DC drives, motor controls, PLC, troubleshooting and more. Books target those interested in: Trades, Journeymen, Engineering textbooks, and more.
National Electrical Code 2005 Softcover Version
The single most important reference in the electrical industry, the National Electrical Code (NEC), is updated every three years and outlines minimum standards for all types of electrical installations. The 2005 NEC, available in softcover or looseleaf version, is loaded with solutions designed to provide better safeguards, add greater usability, and bring provisions in line with technology trends. A must for anyone involved in electrical design, installation, or inspection, the 2005 NEC® provides 100% of the information needed to meet Code® and avoid costly errors in electrical installations of all types. Thomson Delmar Learning is pleased to make this authoritative reference from the NFPA available directly from us, for the convenience of our customers who work in and around the electrical trades. It may be used independently or as a companion to any electrical book, including Delmar's best-selling wiring series as well as our guides to using the NEC®.
Every three years the National Electrical Cod2 is significantly revised to keep pace with technology and enhance protection against electrical fire and shock hazards. Get in position to advance your knowledge and be prepared with the newest codes. The 2005 National Electrical Code is loaded with solutions designed to provide better safeguards, add greater usability, and bring provisions in-line with technology trends. It's a "must" for anyone who works with electric conductors or equipment. Revisions include: Expanded AFCI protection in wiring systems New rules for GFCI protection Identification of ungrounded branch circuit and feeder conductors All-new articles for control panels and speed-drive systems Reorganized rules in Article 220: Branch Circuit, Feeder and Service Calculations New zone hazardous area classification system for combustible dusts and ignitable fibers and flyings. You'll help improve electrical safety for millions of people with the latest edition of the NEC; the world's most widely adopted safety code.
Required reference for handymen and professional electricians: "The National Electric Code, also knows as NFPA-70, is the standard that building officials use to define what is legal to use in electric services of all kinds. NFPA is the National Fire Protection Association. The Electric Code began almost as soon as Edison wired some of his new lights in New York, and the first electricity caused fire happened. Soon thereafter the National Fire Protection Association began writing safety codes aimed at preventing fires and promoting safe wiring techniques. Today, more than a century later, the Electric Code is republished every 3 years. As new inventions and new applications for electricity are ever expanding the code book expands and is revised to define the new applications. The 2005 edition has been updated to include recent developments in available materials and equipment. The code has 772 large pages detailing every electric installation from common house wiring to installation requirements for 35,000 volt transformers. The tables detailing how many conductors you can put in a conduit go on for 50 pages in the appendix.
The problem most people have with the code comes from its complexity and scope. If you are a handyman, or even an electrician, it takes years of study to learn all its requirements, and even then they change it on you. It can be helpful though. One year I was installing wire for a welder in my garage. I found a paragraph that allowed me to derate the current load of the conductors based on the duty cycle percentage of the welder. I saved quite a bit of money on heavy wire that wasn't needed, and had a safe installation. The code is so long and complex that several other books have been written to help professional and amateur electricians understand the code, translating it's stilted language and detailed requirements into plain English for common applications. The "Illustrated Guide to the National Electric Code," by Charles R. Miller, is one of the better ones. There are also numerous how-to handbooks on electric wiring based on the code. E.g., "Wiring Simplified," by Richter and others. is an easy do-it-yourself guide. However, even an illustrated guide book isn't the code. When the electric inspector comes out to review your work you need to know that you wired it correctly. You can bet he's read the code and will be approving or disapproving your work based on its requirements.
Over the years I've had to repair and straighten out many half-baked and outright dangerous electric installations. Many of them were done by well meaning men who just didn't know how electric wiring was supposed to be done. I recommend that everyone doing wiring from homeowner to seasoned electrician, to electric engineer ought to own a current copy of the National Electric Code. The 2005 edition will be current until 2008."
Purchase National Electrical Code 2005 Softcover Version
Industrial Electronics: Applications for Programmable Controllers, Instrumentation and Process Control, and Electrical Machines and Motor Controls (3rd Edition)
by Thomas E. Kissell
Based on the author's experience working with technicians directly on the factory floor in major industries, this handbook/reference covers all of the electronic technology found in modern industrial systems, going into the depth required to install, troubleshoot, and repair complex automation systems. Each stand-alone (but cross-referenced) section explores either an entire system or individual circuits and components that are used over and over in a large variety of complex systems. Features a large number of figures, diagrams, and pictures, and typical Job Assignments, with solutions. Advanced Solid State Logic: Flip-Flops, Shift Registers, Counters and Timers. Programmable Controllers. Solid-State Devices Used to Control Power: SCRs, TRIACs and Power Transistors. Solid-State Devices Used for Firing Circuits. Photoelectronics, Lasers and Fiber Optics. Industrial Power Supplies, Inverters and Converters. Operational Amplifiers. Open-Loop and Closed-Loop Feedback Systems. Input Devices: Sensors, Transducers, and Transmitters for Measurement. Output Devices: Amplifiers, Valves, Relays, Variable-Frequency Drives, Stepper Motors and Servomotor Drives. AC and DC Motors and Generators, Transformers, and Three-Phase Electricity. Case Studies of Four Industrial Applications. Robots and Other Motion Control Systems. Motor-Control Devices and Circuits. Data Communications for Industrial Electronics. For Instrumentation and Process Control Technicians, PLC and Motion Control Technicians.
Purchase this book
Cable and Wire Managers and Cord Covers — Choose from Split Loom, Braided Sleeving, Cord Covers, Heat Shrink Tubing, Cable Raceways Wire Management Systems and many other products for consumers, industry, government and military needs.
Hard-to-Find, Wholesale-Priced Computer Parts — heavily-discounted computer surplus for organizations, industry, government and consumers.
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Saturday, September 17, 2016 15:54
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