Permanent Split-Capacitor Motors

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The permanent split-capacitor (PSC) motor uses only a run capacitor to provide the phase shift required to start the motor. Fig. 1 shows examples of PSC motors, and Fig. 2 shows two diagrams of the PSC motor. In the diagrams note that the run capacitor is connected between the run and start windings and no disconnecting switch or relay is required to dc-energize the start winding from the applied voltage when the motor has started. Also note that the run capacitor is oval shaped. The run capacitor has a metal case, which allows it to dissipate extra heat that is built up in the capacitor since it remains in the circuit at all times.


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Examples of permanent split-capacitor (PSC) motors. Notice the run capacitor mounted on the second motor.
Above: Fig. 1: Examples of permanent split-capacitor (PSC) motors. Notice the run capacitor mounted on the second motor.

(a) Electrical diagram of a PSC motor. (b) Electrical diagram of a multi-speed PSC motor.
Above: Fig. 2: (a) Electrical diagram of a PSC motor. (b) Electrical diagram of a multi-speed PSC motor.

When voltage is applied to the motor, current will flow through the run winding to the common terminal. At this same time current will flow through the run capacitor to the start winding. When the current flows through the run capacitor. it will provide a phase shift that is large enough to start the motor. As the rotors speed increases, a counter EMF will he produced in the start winding that will limit current through it to less than 1 A when the motor reaches full speed. The small amount of current in the start winding when the motor is operating at full speed is small enough so that it won't cause the start winding to overheat.

When the motor shaft sees an increase in its load, it will slow down slightly. The decrease in the rotor’s rpm causes a decrease in the counter EMF. which makes a larger potential difference between it and the applied voltage. The larger potential difference causes an increase in the current in the start winding, which will cause an increase in rotor torque that increases the rotor’s rpm.




above: A permanent split-capacitor-motor 5-inch

This characteristic allows the PSC motor to operate with a constant speed under varying load conditions without using any mechanical devices. The PSC motor is generally used for applications such as small hermetic compressors. blade fan loads, and other loads that require constant speed.


More examples...

LEESON fan and blower duty motors are designed for dependable, energy saving performance in applications where the fan is mounted on the shaft of the motor. The permanent split capacitor design does not require a centrifugal switch, resulting in higher reliability than on other types of single phase motors. This design is also more energy efficient and less expensive to operate. These motors may be operated at listed speed or two speed operation may be achieved by using the proper auxiliary switch. They are suitable for variable speed by adjusting the voltage to the motor using a variable voltage control.
above: LEESON fan and blower duty motor. Uses a permanent-split-capacitor (that "hump" on top).

LEESON Reversing motors are specially designed motors for use on instant-reversing parking gates, doors, slide gates, or other moderate starting torque instant reversing applications. Capable of frequent reversing service. Instant plug-reversing with simple three-wire connection. Permanent split capacitor design offering low inrush and full load amps. Manual reset overload protector. Starting torque approximately 150 percent of full load, not suitable for hard to start loads. Capacitor start, induction run motors with solid state, instant reversing switch. Manual reset overload protector.
above: LEESON Reversing motor. Uses Permanent split capacitor design (those three humps on top are capacitors).



Above: Example by A.O. Smith 733A, 5-5/8" Enclosed Fan/Blower Motor 115/208-230 Volts 1140 RPM 1/2 HP
Sold by: globalindustrial (web link)

Hertz: 60
Phase: 1
Overload: Automatic
Mounting: Mounting kit
Frame: 48

Product Specifications
AMPS --
BEARING TYPE Ball
BRAND A.O. Smith
DIAMETER INCHES 5-5/8
FRAME 48
HORSEPOWER 1/2
LENGTH LESS SHAFT INCHES --
MANUFACTURERS PART NUMBER 733A
ROTATION Reversible
VOLTAGE 115/208-230
MOUNT TYPE Resilient Base
ENCLOSURE TYPE Totally Enclosed
RPM 1140
SPEEDS 1
SHAFT TYPE Single
SHAFT LENGTH INCHES 4-1/2
SHAFT DIMENSION INCHES 1/2 x 4-1/2
OVERLOAD Automatic
SERVICE FACTOR 1.00
SHAFT DIAMETER INCHES 1/2

References:




Top of Page previous related article or category Using a Potential Relay to Start a CSCR Motor Next related page, article or category Connecting a PSC Motor for a Change of Speed Home