Stepper Motors--Theory and Practice--Article Index

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1 Stepping motors

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Multi-stack variable-reluctance stepping motors
  • 1.2.1 Principles of operation
  • 1.2.2 Aspects of design
  • 1.3 Single-stack variable-reluctance stepping motors
  • 1.4 Hybrid stepping motors
  • 1.5 Comparison of motor types

2 Drive circuits

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Unipolar drive circuit
  • 2.2.1 Design example
  • 2.3 Bipolar drive circuit
  • 2.3.1 Example
  • 2.4 Bifilar windings
  • 2.4.1 Example

3 Accurate load positioning: static torque characteristics

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Static torque/rotor position characteristics
  • 3.3 Position error due to load torque
  • 3.4 Choice of excitation scheme
  • 3.4.1 Variable-reluctance motors
  • 3.4.2 Hybrid motors
  • 3.4.3 Mini-step drives
  • 3.5 Load connected to the motor by a gear
  • 3.6 Load connected to the motor by a leadscrew
  • 3.6.1 Example

4 Multi-step operation: torque/speed characteristics

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Relationship between pull-out torque and static torque
  • 4.3 Mechanical resonance
  • 4.3.1 The mechanism of resonance
  • 4.3.2 The viscously coupled inertia damper
  • 4.3.3 Electromagnetic damping

5 High-speed operation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Pull-out torque/speed characteristics for the hybrid motor
  • 5.2.1 Circuit representation of the motor
  • 5.2.2 Calculation of pull-out torque
  • 5.2.3 Example
  • 5.3 Pull-out torque/speed characteristics for the variable-reluctance motor
  • 5.3.1 Circuit representation of the motor
  • 5.3.2 Torque correction factor
  • 5.3.3 Calculation of pull-out torque
  • 5.3.4 Example
  • 5.4 Drive circuit design
  • 5.4.1 Drive requirements
  • 5.4.2 Bi-level drive
  • 5.4.3 Example
  • 5.4.4 Chopper drive
  • 5.5 Instability

6 Open-loop control

  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Starting/stopping rate
  • 6.2.1 Example
  • 6.3 Acceleration/deceleration capability
  • 6.3.1 Example
  • 6.4 Implementation of open-loop control
  • 6.4.1 Microprocessor generated timing
  • 6.4.2 Example
  • 6.4.3 Hardware timing
  • 6.4.4 Pulse deletion
  • 6.4.5 Analogue ramp up/down
  • 6.5 Improving acceleration/deceleration capability
  • 6.5.1 Example

7 Closed-loop control

  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Optical detection of rotor position
  • 7.3 Switching angle
  • 7.3.1 Switching angle to maximize pull-out torque
  • 7.3.2 Choice of fixed switching angle
  • 7.3.3 Example
  • 7.3.4 Control of switching angle
  • 7.4 Alternative position detection techniques: waveform detection
  • 7.4.1 Waveform detection using motional voltage
  • 7.4.2 Waveform detection using phase inductance
  • 7.4.3 Example
  • 7.5 Closed-loop against open-loop control

8 Microprocessor-based stepping motor systems

  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Software vs hardware for open-loop control
  • 8.2.1 Constant rate operation
  • 8.2.2 Ramped acceleration/deceleration
  • 8.2.3 Example
  • 8.3 Microprocessor-based closed-loop control
  • 8.3.1 Control of switching angle
  • 8.3.2 Deceleration initiation and adaptive control

9 Additional material: pull-out torque/speed characteristics of bifilar-wound motors




3-phase Motor for General Purpose, Hazardous Location



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