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Quick Guide to Measurement & Control--Condensed coverage of process-control/Instruments and measuring instruments



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1. Introduction

  • What Is Measurement and Control?
  • Definitions
  • Overview
  • Historical Summary
  • Guide Structure
  • Sections
  • Selecting Measurement and Control Devices
  • Accuracy and Repeatability

2. Identification and Symbols (coming soon)

  • Identification
  • Instrument Line Symbols
  • General Instrument or Function Symbols

3. Analyzers

  • Overview
    • Location
    • Tagging
    • Implementation
    • Safety
    • Code Compliance
    • Selection
    • Documentation
    • Sampling Systems
    • Enclosures
    • Testing and Startup
    • Maintenance
    • Shipment and Delivery
  • Comparison Table
    • Amperometric
    • Capillary Tube
    • Catalytic
    • Chemiluminescence
    • Conductivity
    • Electrochemical
    • Flame Ionization Detector (FID)
    • Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR)
    • Gas Chromatograph
    • Infrared Absorption
    • Mass Spectrometer
  • Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR)
    • Paper Tape
    • Paramagnetic
    • pH
    • Polarographic
    • Radiation Absorption
    • Rotating Disk Viscometer
    • Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD)
    • Ultraviolet
    • Vibrating U-tube
    • X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF)
    • Zirconia Oxide Cell

4. Flow Measurement

  • Overview
  • Classification
  • Measurement
  • Accuracy
  • General Application Notes
  • Type of Fluid
  • Velocity Profile
  • Piping Considerations
  • Line Size
  • Measuring Solids
  • Comparison Table
  • Differential Pressure: General Information
  • Differential Pressure: Orifice Plate
  • Differential Pressure: Segmental Orifice Plate
  • Differential Pressure: Integral Orifice Plate
  • Differential Pressure: Venturi Tube
  • Differential Pressure: Flow Nozzle
  • Differential Pressure: Elbow
  • Differential Pressure: Pitot Tube
  • Magnetic
  • Mass: Coriolis
  • Mass: Thermal
  • Turbine
  • Positive Displacement
  • Vortex Shedding
  • Variable Area (Rotameter)
  • Ultrasonic: Transit Time, Time of Travel, Time of Fl Ultrasonic: Doppler
  • Weir and Flume
  • Target

5. Level Measurement

  • Overview
  • Classification
  • Load Cells
  • Units of Measurement
  • Measurement of Solids
  • Comparison Table
  • Differential Pressure (or Pressure/Static Head)
  • Displacement
  • Float
  • Sonic/Ultrasonic
  • Tape (Float and Tape)
  • Weight and Cable
  • Gage
  • Radioactive (Nuclear)
  • Bubbler (Dip Tube)
  • Capacitance
  • Conductivity
  • Thermal
  • Radar
  • Beam Breakers
  • Vibration
  • Paddle Wheel
  • Diaphragm
  • Resistance Tape
  • Laser

6. Pressure Measurement

  • Overview
  • Units of Measurement
  • Gages
  • Transmitters
  • Filled Systems and Diaphragm Seals
  • Installation
  • Comparison Table
  • Manometer
  • Bourdon Tube, Diaphragm, and Bellows
  • Capacitive Transducer
  • Differential Transformer
  • Force Balance
  • Piezoelectric
  • Potentiometer, Wheatstone Bridge
  • Strain Gage: General Information
  • Strain Gage: Unbonded
  • Strain Gage: Bonded
  • Strain Gage: Thin Film
  • Strain Gage: Diffused Semiconductor

7. Temperature Measurement

  • Overview
  • Units of Measurement
  • Classification
  • Thermowells
  • Comparison Table
  • Filled System
  • Bimetallic
  • Thermocouple
  • Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)
  • Noncontact Pyrometry

8. Control Loops

  • Overview
  • Control Modes
  • On-Off Control
  • Modulating Control
  • Control Types
  • Feedback
  • Cascade
  • Ratio
  • Feedforward
  • Controller Tuning
  • Automatic Tuning
  • Manual Tuning
  • Based-on-Experience Tuning

9. Programmable Electronic Systems

  • Overview
  • Components
  • Centralized Control versus Distributed Control
  • Control Room Instrumentation
  • Programming Languages
  • Fieldbus
  • System Specification
  • Operator Interface
  • Special Design Considerations
  • Network Topologies
  • Transmission Media
  • Selecting Vendors
  • Testing
  • Justification
  • Benefits
  • Implementation
  • Maintenance

10. Alarm and Trip Systems

  • Overview
  • Fail-Safe and Deenergize-to-Trip
  • Safety Integrity Level
  • Elements
  • Design
  • Documentation
  • Testing
  • Commissioning and Pre-startup
  • Management of Change

11. Control Centers

  • Overview
  • Design
  • Physical Aspects
  • Security
  • Fire Protection
  • Air Conditioning
  • Electrical/Electronic Considerations
  • Communication

12. Enclosures

  • Overview
  • General Requirements
  • Documentation
  • Fabrication
  • Protection and Rating
  • Nameplates
  • Electrical
  • Pneumatics
  • Temperature and Humidity Control
  • Inspection and Testing
  • Certification
  • Shipping

13. Control Valves

  • Overview
  • Shutoff
  • Noise
  • Flashing and Cavitation
  • Pressure Drop
  • Installation
  • The Cv Valve Bodies
  • Rules of Thumb
  • Cooling Fins (Radiating Bonnet) and Bonnet Extensions
  • Bellows Seals and Packing
  • Comparison Table
  • Globe
  • Diaphragm (Saunders)
  • Ball
  • Butterfly
  • Eccentric Rotary Plug
  • Trim
  • Actuators

14. Engineering Design and Documentation

  • Overview
  • Front-end Engineering
  • Detailed Engineering
  • Document Quality
  • Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs)
  • Control System Definition
  • Logic Diagrams
  • Process Data Sheets
  • Instrument Index
  • Instrument Specification Sheets
  • Loop Diagrams
  • Interlock Diagrams
  • Manual for Programmable Electronic Systems
  • PLC Program Documentation

15. Installation

  • Overview
  • Code Compliance
  • Scope of Work
  • Installation Details
  • Equipment Identification
  • Equipment Storage
  • Work Specifically Excluded
  • Approved Products
  • Pre-installation Testing
  • Execution
  • Wiring
  • Tubing
  • Checkout

16. Maintenance

  • Overview
  • Implementation
  • Types of Maintenance
  • Personnel
  • Training
  • Records
  • Hazards
  • General Hazards
  • Hazardous Locations
  • Confined Space
  • Electrical Isolation
  • Programmable Electronic Systems
  • Alarm and Trip Systems

17. Calibration

  • Overview
  • Procedures
  • Instrument Classification
  • Class 1 Instruments
  • Class 2 Instruments
  • Class 3 Instruments
  • Class 4 Instruments
  • Calibration Sheets

18. Project Implementation and Management

  • Overview
  • Process Control
  • 1st phase:
  • 2nd phase:
  • 3rd phase:
  • Communication
  • Standard and Code Compliance
  • Control Strategy
  • Plant Business Strategy
  • Implementation of a New Control System
  • Scheduling and Time Management
  • Cost Estimate
  • Document Control
  • Engineering
  • Front-End Engineering
  • Detailed Engineering
  • Quality
  • Purchasing Equipment
  • Vendor Documents
  • Training
  • Equipment Installation
  • Commissioning
  • Startup
  • Project Closing

19. Decision-making Tools

  • Overview
  • Auditing
  • The Auditing Function
  • History, Frequency, and Record of Audits
  • Auditing of Management
  • Auditing of Engineering Records
  • Auditing of Maintenance
  • Auditing of Process Control Systems
  • Evaluation of Plant Needs
  • The Brainstorming Session
  • The Evaluation of Ideas
  • Issuance of the Report
  • Justification
  • Hurdles in the Justification Process
  • Cost Justification
  • Costs - The Bottom Line
  • Cost Justification
  • Justification Follow-up
  • System Evaluation

20. Road to Consulting

  • Overview
  • Types of Consulting Services
  • Types of services
  • Basic Tools
  • Marketing
  • Defining your service
  • Indentifying your market
  • Selecting a marketing method
  • From Proposal to Purchase Order
  • Inquiry Received
  • Meeting with the client
  • Proposal submitted
  • Purchase order received
  • Fees
  • Daily/hourly rate contract + expenses
  • Fixed-Price Contracts
  • Performance Contracts
  • Maintaining client relationships

Section A - Units Conversion Tables

Section B - Corrosion Resistance/Rating Guide

Section C - The Engineering Contractor

Section D - Packaged Equipment

Section E - Typical Scope of Work

Section F - Development of Corporate Standards and Guidelines

Section G - Typical Job Titles and Descriptions

Section H - Sample Audit Protocol

Section I - Sample Audit Report


Dedication:

This guide is dedicated to the pioneers of measurement and control. This technology took its first steps along the Nile Valley about 2600 B.C., when Egyptian engineers began using precise yet simple measuring devices to level the foundation for building the Great Pyramid and employing weirs to measure and distribute irrigation water across the fertile delta. Much more recently, hundreds of dedicated people tinkering in their home and labs, working late at night, and overcoming failures and frustrations, created the powerful computer technology we now rely on.

Without these pioneers, whose first tentative steps thousands of years ago have accelerated into today's full-speed sprint toward on-going advances, the world of measurement and control would not exist and this guide would never have been written. And instead of being an I&C engineer, I would have devoted the past three decades to a profession far less interesting and rewarding.

INTRO:

This is the third edition of this guide (first was online in 1997!!). We sincerely hope that its success will continue--an indication that it’s well accepted by the public at large.

The guide is directed toward all practitioners in process measurement and control as well as other technical personnel such as project managers, process engineers, and mechanical engineers. I wrote it for specialists in process measurement and control and also to help people with little knowledge of process measurement and control to understand that specialty. Learners can find additional detailed information beyond the level of this guide in specialized publications, and major vendors (whose valuable experience and knowledge is readily available to users).

We developed this guide because we wanted to concentrate the knowledge we learned over the years in a guide format and because we felt there is a need for a condensed source that presents information on measurement and control in a clear and concise form. Its condensed format is ideal for everyday use. To the best of our knowledge, there is no other guide quite like this one. One of the main difficulties we faced in creating this guide was deciding how much detail is required -- a task we hope we accomplished successfully. Several web sites or books provide a great deal more detail but don’t actually provide any more substantial information than this text. Because this is a condensed guide, learners seeking more information should refer to vendor publications and detailed textbooks.

It may be helpful to describe how the learner can use this guide. First, it can be studied by anyone seeking to understand the field of process measurement and control, or it can be used as a reference guide to be consulted whenever information is required on a certain topic. We have used the content of this guide as the basis for teaching courses in these subject areas at a few universities across North America.

We hope that this latest revision will guide you in selecting and implementing process measurement and control devices as well as contribute to improving this field of technology. The revision updates most of the sections of the first and second editions while adding sections on maintenance, calibration, project implementation and management, consulting, and tools for decision making. We have made every effort to ensure that this guide is accurate and clear.


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Updated: Sunday, 2016-07-17 17:01 PST