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This guide provides a broad overview of the production, distribution, control, conversion, and measurement of electrical power. The presentation method used in this guide will allow the reader to develop an understanding of electrical power systems. The units of the guide are organized in a systematic manner, beginning with electrical power production methods. The fundamentals of each major unit of the guide are discussed at the beginning of the unit. These fundamentals provide a framework for the information that follows in each unit. The last unit has been expanded to include control devices.
This guide deals with many important aspects of electrical power, not just with one or two areas. In this way, it will give the reader a better understanding of the total electrical power system-from the production of electricity to its conversion to other forms of energy. Each unit deals with a specific system, such as production, distribution, control, conversion, or measurement. Each system is broken down into subsystems. The subsystems are then explored in greater detail in the Sections that make up each unit.
In order to understand the contents of this guide in depth, the reader should have a knowledge of basic electrical fundamentals. The mathematical presentations given are very simple and are used only to show the practical relationships that are important in electrical power system operation. This guide is recommended as a “textbook” for an "electrical power" or "electrical generators and motors" course. It would be a suitable text for vocational-technical schools, community colleges, universities, and, possibly, some technical high school programs. Many illustrations are shown, to make the presentations that are given easier to understand. The content is presented in such a way that any reader should be able to learn a great deal about the operation of electrical power systems.
UNIT I POWER MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS AND FUNDAMENTALS
Section 1 Power Measurement Fundamentals: Units of Measurement -- Conversion of SI Units -- Scientific Notation
Section 2 Power System Fundamentals: The System Concept -- Basic System Functions -- A Simple Electrical System Example -- Energy, Work, and Power -- Types of Electrical Circuits -- Power in DC Electrical Circuits -- Maximum Power Transfer -- Overview of Alternating Current (AC) Circuits -- Vector / Phasor Diagrams -- Impedance in AC Circuits -- Power Relationships in AC Circuits -- Power Relationships in Three-Phase Circuits
Section 3 Power Measurement Equipment: Measurement Systems -- Measuring Electrical Power -- Measuring Electrical Energy -- Measuring Three-Phase Electrical Energy -- Frequency Measurement -- Synchroscopes -- Ground -- Fault Indicators -- Meg-ohmeters -- Clamp-On Meters Telemetering Systems
Section 4 Modern Power Systems: Electrical Power Plants -- Fossil Fuel Systems -- Steam Turbines -- Boilers -- Hydroelectric Systems -- Nuclear Fission Systems -- Operational Aspects of Modem Power Systems
Section 5 Alternative Power Systems: Potential Power Sources -- Solar Energy Systems -- Geothermal Power Systems -- Wind Systems -- Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Systems -- Nuclear-Fusion Power Systems -- Nuclear- Fusion Methods -- Future of Nuclear Fusion -- Fuel-Cell Systems -- Tidal Power Systems -- Coal-Gasification Fuel Systems -- Oil-Shale Fuel-Production Systems -- Alternative Nuclear Power Plants -- Biomass Systems
Section 6 Alternating Current Power Systems: Electromagnetic Induction -- Basic Generator Operation -- Single-Phase AC Power Systems -- Single-Phase AC Generators -- Three-Phase AC Generators -- High-Speed and Low-Speed Generators -- Generator Frequency -- Generator Voltage Regulation -- Generator Efficiency
Section 7 Direct Current Power Systems: DC Production Using Chemical Cells -- Characteristics of Primary Cells -- Characteristics of Secondary Cells -- DC Generating Systems -- DC Conversion Systems -- DC Filtering Methods -- DC Regulation Methods
Section 8 Power Distribution Fundamentals: Overview of Electrical Power Distribution -- Power Transmission / Distribution -- Radial, Ring, and Network Distribution Systems -- Use of Transformers for Power Distribution -- Conductors in Power Distribution Systems -- Conductor Area -- Resistance of Conductors -- Conductor Sizes / Types -- Ampacity of Conductors -- Ampacity Tables -- Use of Insulation in Power Distribution Systems
Section 9 Power Distribution Equipment: Equipment Used at Substations -- Power System Protective Equipment -- Power Distribution Inside Industrial / Commercial Buildings -- The Electrical Service Entrance -- Service Entrance Terminology
Section 10 Single-Phase and Three- Phase Distribution Systems: Single-Phase Systems -- Three-Phase Systems -- Grounding of Distribution Systems -- System Grounding -- Ground -- Fault Protection -- Wiring Design Considerations for Distribution Systems -- Branch Circuit Design Considerations -- Feeder Circuit Design Considerations -- Determining Grounding Conductor Size -- Parts of Interior Electrical Wiring Systems
Section 11 Fundamentals of Electrical Loads: Load Characteristics -- Three-Phase Load Characteristics
Section 12 Heating Systems: Basic Heating Loads -- Electrical Welding Loads -- Power Considerations for Electric Welders -- Electric Heating and Air Conditioning Systems
Section 13 Lighting Systems: Characteristics of Light -- Electrical Lighting Circuits -- Branch Circuit Design -- Lighting Fixture Design -- Factors in Determining Light Output
Section 14 Mechanical Systems: Basic Motor Principles -- DC Motors -- Specialized DC Motors -- Single-Phase AC Motors -- Three-Phase AC Motors -- Specialized Mechanical Power Systems -- Electric Motor Applications
Section 15 Power Control Devices: Power Control Standards, Symbols, and Definitions -- Power Control Using Switches -- Control Equipment for Electric Motors -- Other Electromechanical Power Control Equipment -- Electronic Power Control
Section 16 Operational Power Control Systems: Basic Control Systems -- Motor-Starting Systems -- Specialized Control Systems -- Frequency-Conversion Systems -- Programming the PLC
Section 17 Control Devices: Silicon Controlled Rectifiers -- SCR Construction -- SCR I-V Characteristics -- DC Power Control with SCRs -- AC Power Control with SCRs -- Triac Power Control -- Triac Construction -- Triac Operation -- Triac I-V Characteristics -- Triac Applications -- Static Switching -- Start-Stop Triac Control -- Triac Variable Power Control -- Diac Power Control -- Electronic Control Considerations